Accountability Report

Frequently Used Terms

AAU — Association of American Universities. The AAU is a highly selective membership organization of preeminent public and private research universities. AAU currently has 60 American and two Canadian member institutions. In this report, the Canadian institutions are excluded from calculations. Of the ten UC campuses, six are AAU members: Berkeley, Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, San Diego and Santa Barbara.

AB 540 — AB 540 is an Assembly bill passed in 2001. It allows undocumented high school students who meet certain requirements to pay in-state, instead of nonresident, tuition at California’s public higher education institutions.

Academic Senate — The Academic Senate represents the faculty in the shared governance of the University of California. 

ARRA — American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, passed by Congress in 2009, was an economic stimulus package intended to ameliorate the effects of the 2007–09 recession.

Auxiliary enterprises — Auxiliary enterprises are campus services that charge fees for goods and services and therefore are self-supporting. Examples include student housing, dining facilities and bookstores.

Clinical faculty — Clinical faculty are instructors in medical and health sciences fields. They include professors in residence, professors of clinical __ (__ being the name of the discipline or specialty), and health science clinical professors. Clinical faculty are not members of the Academic Senate.

Comparison institutions; comparators — UC historically has used eight universities against which to benchmark faculty salaries. The comparison institutions — four public and four private — are: University of Illinois, University of Michigan, University at Buffalo and University of Virginia (all public); and Harvard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford and Yale (all private).

FTE — Full time equivalent – a unit of measurement of employee or student workload or attendance. Two individuals each engaged in half-time employment constitute a single FTE. In this report, FTE counts are represented with a single decimal to differentiate them from headcounts. (See headcount.)

General campus — Used to distinguish the non-health science areas of a campus from the health science areas. Berkeley, Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, Riverside and San Diego include both general campus and health science areas. Merced, Santa Barbara and Santa Cruz are general campus only, and San Francisco is an exclusively health science campus.

General funds — General funds include State general funds, which are funds from the State of California, and UC general funds, which are primarily indirect cost recovery and nonresident tuition.

Graduation rate — The proportion of students in a cohort who finish their degrees within a specified period. Undergraduate graduation rates are generally measured in four-, five- and six-year increments for entering freshmen, and two-, three- and four-year increments for transfer students.

Headcount — Headcount is the actual number of individuals without accounting for full- or part-time status. Two students each attending school half-time constitute a headcount of two. (See FTE.)

Health sciences instruction — Seven UC campuses offer health sciences instruction. Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, San Francisco and San Diego have schools of medicine and other health sciences such as pharmacy, nursing and dentistry; Riverside has a school of medicine; Berkeley offers health sciences instruction in optometry and public health.

K-12 — Kindergarten through 12th-grade instruction.

Ladder-rank — Ladder-rank faculty are faculty who are tenured or have potential to receive tenure, and generally are members of the Academic Senate.

Master Plan — The Master Plan for Higher Education establishes a system of public higher education in California that defines the roles of public institutions with the goal of making higher education available to all Californians. The Master Plan was originally drafted in 1960 and has been updated several times to accommodate changing circumstances.

Non-ladder-rank faculty — Non-ladder rank faculty are faculty who are neither tenured nor on track to receive tenure, and generally are not members of the Academic Senate. Non-ladder rank faculty includes lecturers, visitors, adjuncts, instructional assistants and clinical faculty.

Nonresident — Nonresident students come from outside California to attend a UC campus. They must pay the full cost of attendance.

Pell Grant — The Pell Grant is a federal program that provides need-based grants to low-income individuals for the purposes of obtaining a college degree. A Pell Grant recipient is defined as a student who received a Pell Grant at any point while attending an institution.

Postbaccalaureate teaching credential — The postbaccalaureate teaching credential trains individuals to meet state standards for teacher certification.

Postdoctoral scholar — Postdoctoral scholars are engaged in further research or training in the fields in which they obtained their doctoral degrees for the purpose of gaining additional expertise and skills. Postdoctoral scholars may hold concurrent titles in other academic or staff categories.

SCH, student credit hours – Student credit hours are a measure of faculty teaching workload. SCH is defined as the number of student enrollments in a course multiplied by the number of credits available from that course. For example, a 4-credit course with 50 students generates 200 SCH; a 2-credit course of 15 students generates 30 SCH.

STEM — Science, technology, engineering and mathematics. In this report, includes physical sciences and mathematics, life sciences, engineering, computer science and health sciences.

TICAS — The Institute for College Access and Success. TICAS is an independent, nonprofit organization that conducts and supports nonpartisan research, analysis and advocacy with regard to access and affordability of higher education.

Transfer students — Transfer students enter UC after completing their freshman- and sophomore-level studies at a California Community College. The Master Plan calls for UC to admit as juniors all qualified California Community College students and specifies that the University maintain a 60:40 ratio of upper-division (junior- and senior-level) to lower-division (freshman- and sophomore-level).

UCUES — University of California Undergraduate Experience Survey. UCUES is a biennial survey that solicits undergraduate opinions on all aspects of the UC experience. See Data Glossary entry below for more information.

Data Sources

Association of American Universities (AAU)

The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an association of 62 leading public and private research universities in the United States and Canada. A list of the institutions can be found in Table 6 of this glossary. Membership in AAU is by invitation and is based on the high quality of programs of academic research and scholarship and undergraduate, graduate and professional education in a number of fields. Throughout this report, the two AAU institutions in Canada are excluded from the “Non-UC AAU Public” group because they do not submit data to the U.S. Department of Education, the source of the AAU data used here. For more information, visit

American Association of University Professors (AAUP)

The American Association of University Professors is an organization of professors and other academics in the United States. It conducts an annual survey of faculty compensation, used in this report to compare UC’s faculty salaries. More information on the AAUP data set can be found at

Consumer Price Index (CPI)

The CPI is a measure of inflation experienced by consumers, and an important indicator of the condition of the economy. It can be used to adjust other economic data for changes in price level and to convert them into inflation-free dollars. For example, retail sales and income data are "deflated" to assess their "real" movements over time. This report uses the calendar year average of the CPI-W (CA), which is the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers. For more information on the CPI-W (CA), visit

Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS)

IPEDS is a system of interrelated surveys conducted annually by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. IPEDS gathers information from every college, university, and technical and vocational institution that participates in federal student financial aid programs. IPEDS provides basic data needed to describe — and analyze trends in — postsecondary education in the United States, in terms of the numbers of students enrolled, staff employed, dollars expended and degrees earned. For more information, visit

National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS)

The National Postsecondary Student Aid Study is the most comprehensive, nationally representative survey of student financing of postsecondary education in the United States. Since 1987, NPSAS has been conducted every three to four years by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Undergraduate and graduate students enrolled at all types of postsecondary institutions are represented. For more information, visit

National Student Clearinghouse (NSC)

The National Student Clearinghouse reports on all institutions that a student has attended or received a degree/credential at. Estimates are conservative due to imperfect matching of students. For more information, visit

Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED)

The Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) is a federal survey conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) for the National Science Foundation and five other federal agencies (National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Education, National Endowment for the Humanities, U.S. Department of Agriculture and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The SED gathers information annually from new U.S. research doctorate graduates about their educational histories, funding sources and postdoctoral plans.

UC Audited Financial Statements

UC, like all public entities, is audited by an external auditing firm. UC’s external audit is performed by Price Waterhouse Coopers, an external independent certified public accounting firm reporting to the Regents. UC’s audited financial statements can be accessed at

UC Budget for Current Operations

UC budget documents can be found at

UC Corporate Financial System (CFS)

The Corporate Financial System (CFS) contains financial data for all UC campuses. The primary source of data in the CFS is a monthly transmittal file from each of the ten UC campuses. Each campus file contains data reflecting current financial, budgetary and encumbrance balances and current month financial activity in the campus's general ledger. More information can be found at

UC Corporate Personnel System (CPS)

The Corporate Personnel System (CPS) is a reporting system with demographic, personnel and pay activity data on employees. More information can be found at

UC Data Warehouse (UCDW)

The Data Warehouse is a set of databases and processes that provides information to meet the management, analytical and operational needs of the UC Office of the President. The databases are created and/or updated with data received from the campuses and other sources. More information can be found at

UC Faculty Instructional Activities dataset (“TIE” data collection)

UC conducts annual data collections from campuses on faculty instructional activities. This data collection was originally undertaken in response to a state reporting requirement which was not renewed.

UC Graduate Student Support Survey

The UCOP Student Affairs department conducts periodic surveys of the competitiveness of UC graduate student support. Reports on this survey can be found at

UC Information Center

The UC Information Center is a website providing a central source of information about the University that allows the public to explore the UC story through data. The site can be accessed at

UC Medical Centers Audited Financial Statements

The UC medical centers, like all public entities, are audited by an external auditing firm. The medical center audited financial statements are published separately from UC’s external audit. UC’s audited financial statements can be accessed at

UC Student Financial Support Annual Reports

These reports, produced by the UCOP Student Affairs department, can be found along with other financial aid information at

University of California Undergraduate Experience Survey (UCUES)

The University of California Undergraduate Experience Survey (UCUES) biennially solicits student opinions on all aspects of the UC experience. UCUES content is broad and covers most aspects of students' academic and co-curricular experiences. Students evaluate such things as instruction, advising and student services. More information can be found at

Table 1. Broad Discipline Classification

Broad Discipline CIP Categories Included
When Using UC Corporate Data When Using IPEDS Degree Data
Arts & Humanities Visual/Performing Arts
English Literature
Foreign Languages
Liberal Arts
English Literature
Foreign Languages
Liberal Arts
Life Sciences Bio/Life Sciences
Conservation Science
Agricultural Science (select 01 CIPs)
Bio/Life Sciences
Conservation Science
Agricultural Science (select 01 CIPs)
Physical Sciences, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (PSTEM) Math
Physical Science
Computer Science
Physical Science 
Computer Science
Social Sciences Area Studies
Social Sciences (except UCSD Pacific Affairs, UCI Criminology)
Agricultural Business/Production (select 01 CIPs)
Area Studies
Social Sciences
Agricultural Business/Production (select 01 CIPs)
Other Disciplines Interdisciplinary
Public Admin.
Law (non-J.D.)
Health Sciences
Library Science
Social Sciences (UCSD Pacific Affairs and UCI Criminology)
Public Admin.
Law (non-J.D.)
Health Sciences
Library Science
Parks & Recreation
Military Science
Homeland Security

Table 2. Faculty Discipline Groupings

Discipline Grouping - Accountability UAS Discipline
Arts & Humanities Fine & Applied Arts
Arts & Humanities Foreign Languages
Arts & Humanities Letters
Arts & Humanities Theology
Business/Management Business & Management
Education Education
Engineering & Computer Science Computer & Information Sciences
Engineering & Computer Science Engineering
Interdisciplinary/Other Interdisciplinary Studies
Interdisciplinary/Other Physical Education
Interdisciplinary/Other Military Sciences
Interdisciplinary/Other Home Economics
Law Law
Life Sciences Biological Sciences
Life Sciences Agriculture & Natural Resources
Math Mathematics
Medicine Medicine
Other General Campus Professional Architecture & Environmental Design
Other General Campus Professional Criminology
Other General Campus Professional Social Welfare
Other General Campus Professional Communications
Other General Campus Professional Library Science
Other Health Science Veterinary Medicine
Other Health Science Dentistry
Other Health Science Nursing
Other Health Science Pharmacy
Other Health Science Public Health
Other Health Science Optometry
Other Health Science Other Health Professions
Physical Science Physical Sciences
Social Science & Psychology Psychology
Social Science & Psychology Social Sciences
Social Science & Psychology Area Studies

Table 3. Academic Categories, Series and Class Title Outline Codes


Series Included

Class Title Outline (CTO) Codes1

Faculty – Ladder-rank and Equivalent (LRE)

Professorial – Tenure, Non-Tenure and Recall2

Clinical Prof. of Dentistry – 50% or More

Supervisor of Physical Education – Tenure, Non-Tenure and Recall

Acting Professor – Senate and Non-Senate

Lecturer with Security of Employment and with Potential Security of Employment – 100%, and Recall3

Astronomers and Agronomists – Tenure, Non-Tenure, and Recall

010, 011, 012

030, 031

040, 041, 042


114, 124

210, 211, 212


520, 521, 522, 530, 531, 532

Faculty – Clinical/In-Residence/Adjunct

Professor in Residence

Professor of Clinical ___ (e.g., Medicine)

Health Sciences Clinical Professor

Adjunct Professor

Visiting Professor






Faculty –  Lecturers


Lecturer with Potential Security of Employment – Part Time

Instructional Assistant (non-student)




Postdoctoral Scholars


575, 577

Medical Interns/Residents


Student Teaching/Research Assistants

426, 436, 456, 467, 477

1 The CTO code identifies a group of titles with similar duties and/or conditions of appointment.

Table 4. AAU Member Universities (United States only)

UC Non-UC Public Private
Berkeley Georgia Institute of Technology — Main Campus Boston University
Davis Indiana University — Bloomington Brandeis University
Irvine Iowa State University Brown University
Los Angeles Michigan State University California Institute of Technology
San Diego Ohio State University — Main Campus Carnegie Mellon University
Santa Barbara Pennsylvania State University — Main Campus Case Western Reserve University
Santa Cruz* Purdue University — Main Campus Columbia University in the City of New York
  Rutgers University — New Brunswick Cornell University
  Stony Brook University Dartmouth University*
  Texas A & M University Duke University
  The University of Texas at Austin Emory University
  University at Buffalo Harvard University
  University of Arizona Johns Hopkins University
  University of Colorado at Boulder Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  University of Florida New York University
  University of Illinois at Urbana — Champaign Northwestern University
  University of Iowa Princeton University
  University of Kansas Rice University
  University of Maryland — College Park Stanford University
  University of Michigan — Ann Arbor Tulane University of Louisiana
  University of Minnesota — Twin Cities University of Chicago
  University of Missouri — Columbia University of Pennsylvania
  University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Rochester
  University of Oregon University of Southern California
  University of Pittsburgh — Pittsburgh Campus Vanderbilt University
  University of Virginia — Main Campus Washinton University in St. Louis
  University of Washington — Seattle Campus Yale University
  University of Wisconsin — Madison  
University of Utah*

*Joined in 2019.

Table 5. Inflation Adjustments

Unless otherwise noted, all inflation adjustments are to calendar year dollars using the consumer price index for urban wage earners and clerical workers, California (CPI-W) published by the California Department of Finance.

Calendar Year Fiscal/ Academic Year CCPI-W, CA (1982–84=100)
1993 1993–94 144.7
1994 1994–95 146.6
1995 1995–96 149.1
1996 1996–97 152.0
1997 1997–98 155.0
1998 1998–99 157.6
1999 1999–00 162.2
2000 2000–01 168.1
2001 2001–02 174.7
2002 2002–03 179.0
2003 2003–04 183.8
2004 2004–05 188.9
2005 2005–06 195.9
2006 2006–07 203.3
2007 2007–08 209.9
2008 2008–09 217.6
2009 2009–10 216.3
2010 2010–11 219.7
2011 2011–12 226.4
2012 2012–13 231.6
2013 2013–14 234.9
2014 2014–15 239.0
2015 2015–16 241.6
2016 2016-17 246.2
2017 2017-18 253.2
2018 2018-19 263.0
2019 2019-20 270.8
2020 2020-21 275.6
2021 2021-22 288.6

Student Level Classification Summary

UCOP classifies graduate students into five enrollment levels that rely on campus provided information on program type and student enrollment level. Within UCOP’s central student data system campuses indicate whether each of their programs of study is academic or professional at the master’s and doctoral levels. These indications, combined with the actual enrollment level (masters or doctoral) of the student, serve as the determination of whether a student is enrolled in an academic doctoral, professional doctoral, academic master’s, or professional master’s program. Two exceptions to this rule include (1) all self-supporting students are treated as professional (master’s or doctoral based on level) regardless of how the campus may have classified the program, and (2) all students enrolled in programs associated with professional licensure (law, medicine, and other health professions) are treated as professional practice.